MUSCLES OF THE ARMS
WINDSOR ROYAL LIBRARY 19013v.
Description: Dating from 1508-1510, this particular folio demonstrates the role of the muscles involved in the lifting and movement of the shoulder joint and arm, showing them at three different stages of dissection and from various angles. Leonardo explained how the muscles work by using a system of threads and lines to demostrate how movement is created.
BONES OF THE ARM
WINDSOR ROYAL LIBRARY 19000V.
Description: This folio depicts not only the bones of the arm but also demonstrates that the muscles determine the movements of the arm, with particular emphasis on the biceps. Leonardo often analyzed long bones such as those found in the leg and arm, focusing on their function as levers for lifting, lowering, rotating and bending limbs.
WINDSOR ROYAL LIBRARY 19102R.
Description: This unique diagram depicts a cross-section of a pregnant human womb carrying a foetus, complete with umbilical cord. The three-dimensional nature of the sketch beautifully illustrates the typical foetal position of the infant. Also visible are the foetal membranes, each peeled back to reveal each successive layer. The rest of the drawings explain the flow of maternal blood from the placenta to the foetus. Leonardo also sought to clarify the placenta’ s positioning in a series of accompanying sketches.
EYEBALLS, OPTIC NERVES
Weimar, Schloss Museum
Description: In this diagram Leonardo depicts the head sliced open along a horizontal plane to reveal the brain with the eyeballs, optic and cranial nerves attached.Leonardo was dissatisfied with the description of the cranial nerves’ Arrangement described by his contemporaries and their predecessors.
WINDSOR ROYAL LIBRARY 19007v.
Description: In this beautiful representation of the spine Leonardo accurately depicts the curvature of the spine and includes the correct number of vertebrae. Its clear detailing of spinal curvatures reflects Leonardo’s appreciation of its important role in bodily mechanics. Later drawings including the positioning of the pelvis are also linked to this understanding.
STUDY MOVEMENTS OF THE ARM
WINDSOR ROYAL LIBRARY 12613v.
Description: Leonardo began his work in osteology ( the study of bones ) in 1508-1510 during the later years of his life. These studies took place at the same time as his other investigations into the human body and its functioning, such as his work on human musculature. Leonardo was determined to understand the full skeleton and each individual bone, as he believed that they were the bearing elements of the “human machine”.